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We are committed to making our work as accessible as possible, so all STEPS Centre publications are published under a Creative Commons licence and can be downloaded for free in pdf format.

List of all the background papers

For a quick overview of the topics covered by our background papers, all of the titles are listed here: list-of-new-manifesto-background-papers (pdf 67kb)

You can view or download any of these titles for free by clicking on the links or going to the appropriate posts below.

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Background Paper / Trends in the Global Distribution of R&D Since the 1970s: Data, their Interpretation and Limitations

By Elisa Arond and Martin Bell

The 1970 ‘Sussex Manifesto’ was one of the earliest global policy reports to use statistical data about R&D that were starting to become available on an internationally comparable basis, though only in a very sketchy form for developing countries. It demonstrated the marginal position of that group of countries as contributors to the
world’s R&D, accounting for only about 2 per cent of the global total. It also couched some of its core recommendations about policy in terms of quantitative indicators of R&D, but highlighted several major limitations of such indicators as tools for policy.

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Background paper / The Global Redistribution of Innovation: Lessons from China and India

By Adrian Ely and Ian Scoones

In the 40 years since the original “Sussex Manifesto”, the global landscape of science, technology and innovation has altered radically. The emergence of new centres of innovation in many of what were in 1970 grouped as “developing countries” has important implications not only for those interested in maintaining the competitiveness of the more established economic powers, but more importantly for addressing global challenges of poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability.

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Background paper / Innovation Capabilities and Directions of Development

By Martin Bell

The central challenge in the original Sussex Manifesto centred on massively increasing the developing countries’ scientific and technological capabilities for creating new knowledge and shaping the technologies they used. It also stressed the need for radical change in the national and international contexts within which those capabilities
would be accumulated and used.

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Background paper / Direction, Distribution and Diversity! Pluralising Progress in Innovation, Sustainability and Development

By Andy Stirling

Notions of ‘progress’ pervade the modern world. Yet, ‘north’ and ‘south’ alike, policymaking for progress in innovation, sustainability and development tends to be ambiguous. Politicians speak of “the way forward”, without saying which way. History is viewed as a “race to advance technology”, without stating the particular direction.

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Background paper / The Original ‘Sussex Manifesto’: Its Past and Future Relevance

By Adrian Ely and Martin Bell

The original “Sussex Manifesto” called for radical change in international debate and action about harnessing science and technology to development.

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