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Entries tagged with ‘technology transfer’

Kyoto Protocol

The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. ‘The major feature of the Kyoto Protocol is that it sets binding targets for 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. These amount to an average of five per cent against 1990 levels over the five-year period 2008-2012.’

‘The major distinction between the Protocol and the Convention is that while the Convention encouraged industrialised countries to stabilize GHG emissions, the Protocol commits them to do so.’

‘Recognizing that developed countries are principally responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, the Protocol places a heavier burden on developed nations under the principle of “common but differentiated responsibilities.”’

‘The Kyoto Protocol was adopted in Kyoto, Japan, on 11 December 1997 and entered into force on 16 February 2005. The detailed rules for the implementation of the Protocol were adopted at COP 7 in Marrakesh in 2001, and are called the “Marrakesh Accords”.’

Countries are required to implement national measures to meet targets, but the Protocol also suggests three additional market-based mechanisms for doing so, including: emissions trading, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), and through Joint implementation (JI). The aim is for these three mechanisms to foster “green investment”.

Also part of the Protocol is a focus on adaptation to the effects of climate change. An Adaptation Fund was established to finance adaptation projects and programmes in developing countries that are Parties to the Kyoto Protocol.

Activities for the tansfer and access to environmentally sound technology and know-how were considered essential under the UNFCC and the Kyoto Protocol, especially for developing countries to meet emissions targets. Subsequently under the Marrakesh Accords, technology transfer activities have been grouped in a framework following five main themes, which are: technology needs & needs assessments; technology information; enabling environments; capacity building; and mechanisms for technology transfer.

Timeline entry contributed by: Go Maruichi

Source: The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change website (UNFCC)

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific intergovernmental body tasked with reviewing and assessing the most recent scientific, technical and socio-economic information produced worldwide relevant to the understanding of climate change. It provides the world with a clear scientific view on the current state of climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic consequences, notably the risk of climate change caused by human activity.

The panel was established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), two organizations of the United Nations. This was the first intergovernmental panel to investigate the shared international challenge of global climate change, representing a particular model for science policy decision-making.

Among other types of reports, the IPCC has provided periodic Assessment Reports of the state of knowledge on climate change, in 1990, 1995, 2001 and 2007. As of January 2011, the Fifth Assessment Report is in preparation.

In 2007, the IPCC was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

Timeline entry contributed by Theodosis Kalogeropoulos

Fourteenth session of International Bioethics Committee

This event gathered various experts from across world to discuss issues of bioethics and technology transfer. This led to establishment of a UNESCO Regional Bioethics Centre at Egerton University, Njoro campus, Kenya and was followed by another conference at the Centre on Bioethical Perspectives and Practices in Research, Medicine, Life Sciences and Related Technologies in Sub-Saharan Africa, which gathered researchers, scientists, observers and guests from sub-saharan Africa and other parts of the world with an interest in bioethical issues in Africa.

Source: UNESCO http://portal.unesco.org/shs/admin/ev.php?URL_ID=6349&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201&reload=1263744318

Entry submitted by Geoffrey Kololi Wanyama

OECD: Achieving the Successful Transfer of Environmentally Sound Technologies

The paper states that in order to successfully transfer environmentally sound technologies, much has to be done both by the developed and developing countries. For example, the paper suggests that there has to be a transfer of know-how, capacity building and technical skills through training. Governments should eliminate tariffs and other trade barriers. Developed countries have to help with financial resources, and new technologies have to be adapted to the recipient country context.

Source: OECD website

Entry submitted by Rosalie Lehel

UN Conference on S&T for the Benefit of the Less Developed Countries

The 1963 United Nations Conference on Science and Technology for the Benefit of Less Developed Countries, held in Geneva, involved some 1,665 delegates from 96 countries and 108 specialized agencies, with sessions devoted to science policy, education, and natural resources, among others.  The conference was meant to address “the observed trend toward greater economic disparity between the developed and developing countries”. (Jolly, 2004: 95)

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UN Declaration: New International Economic Order

The Declaration for the Establishment of a New International Economic Order (NIEO), adopted by the United Nations General Assembly Special Sixth Session in 1974 (1 May 1974, A/RES/S-6/3201) called for a restructuring of the international order toward greater equity for developing countries, particularly in reference to a wide range of trade, financial, commodity, and debt-related issues.  The Declaration was built on a set of proposals for more equitable international economic cooperation, as put forward during the 1970s by developing countries through UNCTAD, including to: reform the terms of trade, increase development assistance, reduce developed-country tariffs, among others.

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